Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes is closely associated with obesity.  Obesity causes diabetes and metabolic syndrome over insulin resistance.  Metabolic problems caused by Type 2 Diabetes (hypertension, vascular obstruction, kidney failure or heart attack etc.) are also related with central obesity.

Type 2 Diabetes start insidiously.  It starts to damage your organs years before diagnosis when insulin resistance just starts.  Type 2 Diabetes firstly and mostly damages in very small blood vessels.  This condition is called microangiopathy.  Microangopathy weaken walls of small vessels.  It causes adherence of fats on vascular walls.  These fat layers which becomes thicker gradually narrows the inside of vessel.  This reduces the quantity of flowing blood into the vessels.

We may compare this condition as calcified and obstructed water pipes.  Fat particles circulating in your vessels are denser and smaller than those in normal people.  Insulin looses its effect on the liver in fat patients.  This is caused by insulin resistance of the liver.  When control of insulin hormone over insulin, liver makes fat particles secreted smaller and harder.  This small and dense fat particles adhere onto the vascular walls easier than fat particles in normal people.  Just like obstruction caused by calcified water in water pipes.

First, eye vessels are affected from this microangiopathy.  There are many of these small vessels on the layer called RETINA which is behind the eye.  Small vessels on this layer become weak and inside of vessels is obstructed with fat. Circulation of retina layer spoils.  You start to have a blurry vision first.  Then bleeding occurs from these vessels and the layer is completely covered by coagulated blood.  Blindness develops slowly and completely.  This condition is called diabetic retinopathy.  Visual disorders due to diabetes has already started years before diabetes is diagnosed.

These vascular problems affect kidney vessels.  Atherosclerosis occurs in kidney vessels.  This prevents urine production of kidney.  Because blood coming to the kidney decreases.  Kidney produces less urine and swelling occurs in the body.  This is called edema.  Furthermore, intravascular pressure increases because excessive part of blood can not be excreted by urine.  Blood pressure increases.  This is called hypertension.  Kidney fails completely after a while.  This condition is called kidney failure.  Patients whose kidney has failed can survive through machines called Dialysis to clear the blood from toxic and hazardous substances.  They are required to be connected for at least 3 to 4 days per week and everyday in some cases.

More than half of all patients who had hemodialysis treatment experience kidney failure because of diabetes.

Six of each dialysis patients need dialysis treatment because of diabetes.  The only treatment of these patients is kidney transplantation.  This organ transplantation procedure may be performed from an alive donor.  In general, intact kidneys of a dead person may be taken and transplanted to dialysis patient.

Metabolic Syndrome is a disease group which appears on diabetes basis and includes all diseases increasing risk of heart attack.  Diagnosis and treatment of individuals with metabolic syndrome is very important to prevent heart attacks and deaths.

Type 2 Diabetes does not cause damage in small vessels only (microaingiopathy).  Particles of bad cholesterol produced in different sizes (small and dense) cause same disorders in big vessels as well.  This condition is called big vascular damage.  Obstruction occurs both in cardiac vessels and carotid arteries.  Heart muscle circulation is spoilt due to these obstructions and heart attack occurs. Heart attack may cause death.  Obstruction on carotid arteries on the neck causes interruption on blood flow into the brain.   Stroke appears.  Strokes may cause death.  Paralysis develops in a large portion of the patients.